To tackle this question, we must first understand the basics:
BASAL GANGLIA: A subcortical region of the brain, the basal ganglia is involved in our reward system, habit formation, motor functions, as well as everyday behaviour.
HIPPOCAMPUS: Responsible for our memory system. This limbic structure is activated when we consolidate information into short-term and long-term memory. It receives projections from the amygdala and the frontal lobe, which indicates why we sometimes associate emotions with consciously retrieved memories.
AMYGDALA: Composed of multiple nuclei found in the subcortical regions, the amygdala shares many connections with other parts of the brain. This limbic structure plays an important role in how we emotionally label information, such as fear or pleasure, and how we experience sexual arousal and aggression.
HYPOTHALUMUS: Another subcortical region and limbic structure, the hypothalamus is associated with many physiological and psychological effects felt when experiencing stress and love. By way of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, stress is promoted via cortisol release, and love through oxytocin and vasopressin release.
TEMPOROPARIETAL JUNCTION: The region where the temporal and parietal lobes meet, the temporoparietal junction determines a number of functions such as self-perception and sensory integration of the self and others. It is this region that is involved in the “theory of mind” and the “out-of-the-body-experience”.
PREFRONTAL CORTEX: Belonging to the frontal lobe, the prefrontal cortex is involved in our planning, decision-making, working memory, attention and idea execution processes.
POSTCENTRAL GYRUS: Found in the parietal lobe, the postcentral gyrus is responsible for receiving sensory information regarding touch sensation, including temperature and pressure change.
VISUAL CORTEX: This region of the brain is in involved in how we process visual information. Located in the occipital lobe, the visual cortex receives visual input from the retina in the eye. It is responsible for constructing an image of what we see and observe in our external environment.
AUDITORY CORTEX: Located in the temporal lobe, the auditory cortex is involved in how we receive and process auditory information from our ears. It is responsible for constructing sound, enabling us to distinguish tone, pitch and intensity as it reaches our awareness.
INSULAR CORTEX: This is one of the regions of the brain that we understand the least. Located deep within the folds in between the temporal and parietal lobe, the insular cortex has an important role in our higher cortical processes such as awareness, emotional experience and consciousness.
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